ORO.FTL.105 Definitions

Previous page Next page
ORO.FTL.100

Scope

ORO.FTL.110

Operator Responsibilities

For the purpose of this subpart [Subpart FTL], the following definitions shall apply:

(1)       “acclimatised” means a state in which a crew member’s circadian biological clock is synchronised to the time zone where the crew member is. A crew member is considered to be acclimatised to a 2-hour wide time zone surrounding the local time at the point of departure. When the local time at the place where a duty commences differs by more than 2 hours from the local time at the place where the next duty starts, the crew member, for the calculation of the maximum daily flight duty period, is considered to be acclimatised in accordance with the values in the Table 1.

Table 1

Time difference (h) between reference time and local time where the crew member starts the next duty

Time elapsed since reporting at reference time

< 48

48 – 71:59

72 – 95:59

96 – 119:59

≥ 120

< 4

B

D

D

D

D

≥ 4 and ≤ 6

B

X

D

D

D

> 6 and ≤ 9

B

X

X

D

D

> 9 and ≤ 12

B

X

X

X

D

 

“B” means acclimatised to the local time of the departure time zone,

“D” means acclimatised to the local time where the crew member starts his/her next duty, and

“X” means that the crew member is in an unknown state of acclimatisation;

GM1 ORO.FTL.105(1) Definitions

GM2 ORO.FTL.105(1) Definitions

GM3 ORO.FTL.105(1) Definitions

(2)       “reference time” means the local time at the reporting point situated in a 2-hour wide time zone band around the local time where a crew member is acclimatised;

GM1 ORO.FTL.105(2) Definitions

(3)       “accommodation” means, for the purpose of standby and split duty, a quiet and comfortable place not open to the public with the ability to control light and temperature, equipped with adequate furniture that provides a crew member with the possibility to sleep, with enough capacity to accommodate all crew members present at the same time and with access to food and drink;

GM1 ORO.FTL.105(3) Definitions

(4)       “suitable accommodation” means, for the purpose of standby, split duty, and rest, a separate room for each crew member located in a quiet environment and equipped with a bed, which is sufficiently ventilated, has a device for regulating temperature and light intensity, and access to food and drink;

(5)       “augmented  flight  crew”  means  a  flight  crew  which  comprises  more  than  the minimum number required to operate the aircraft, allowing each flight crew member to leave the assigned post, for the purpose of in-flight rest, and to be replaced by another appropriately qualified flight crew member;

(6)       “break” means a period of time within a flight duty period, shorter than a rest period, counting as duty and during which a crew member is free of all tasks;

(7)       “delayed reporting” means the postponement of a scheduled FDP by the operator before a crew member has left the place of rest;

(8)       “disruptive  schedule”  means  a  crew  member’s  roster  which  disrupts  the  sleep opportunity during the optimal sleep time window by comprising an FDP or a combination of FDPs which encroach, start or finish during any portion of the day or of the night where a crew member is acclimatised. A schedule may be disruptive due to early starts, late finishes or night duties.

(a)   “early type” of disruptive schedule means:

(i)    for “early start” a duty period starting in the period between 05:00 and 05:59 in the time zone to which a crew member is acclimatised; and

(ii)   for “late finish” a duty period finishing in the period between 23:00 and 01:59 in the time zone to which a crew member is acclimatised;

(b)   “late type” of disruptive schedule means:

(i)    for “early start” a duty period starting in the period between 05:00 and 06:59 in the time zone to which a crew member is acclimatised; and

(ii)   for “late finish” a duty period finishing in the period between 00:00 and 01:59 in the time zone to which a crew member is acclimatised;

GM1 ORO.FTL.105(8) Definitions

(9)       “night duty” means a duty period encroaching any portion of the period between 02:00 and 04:59 in the time zone to which the crew is acclimatised;

(10)     “duty” means any task that a crew member performs for the operator, including flight duty, administrative work, giving or receiving training and checking, positioning, and some elements of standby;

GM1 ORO.FTL.105(10) Definitions

(11)     “duty period” means a period which starts when a crew member is required by an operator to report for or to commence a duty and ends when that person is free of all duties, including post-flight duty;

(12)     “flight duty period (FDP)” means a period that commences when a crew member is required to report for duty, which includes a sector or a series of sectors, and finishes when the aircraft finally comes to rest and the engines are shut down, at the end of the last sector on which the crew member acts as an operating crew member;

(13)     “flight time” means, for aeroplanes and touring motor gliders, the time between an aircraft first moving from its parking place for the purpose of taking off until it comes to rest on the designated parking position and all engines or propellers are shut down;

(14)     “home base” means the location, assigned by the operator to the crew member, from where the crew member normally starts and ends a duty period or a series of duty periods and where, under normal circumstances, the operator is not responsible for the accommodation of the crew member concerned;

(15)     “local day” means a 24-hour period commencing at 00:00 local time;

(16)     “local night” means a period of 8 hours falling between 22:00 and 08:00 local time;

(17)     “operating crew member” means a crew member carrying out duties in an aircraft during a sector;

GM1 ORO.FTL.105(17) Definitions

(18)     “positioning” means the transferring of a non-operating crew member from one place to another, at the behest of the operator, excluding:

–      the time of travel from a private place of rest to the designated reporting place at home base and vice versa, and

–      the time for local transfer from a place of rest to the commencement of duty and vice versa;

(19)     “rest facility” means a bunk or seat with leg and foot support suitable for crew members’ sleeping on board an aircraft;

(20)     “reserve” means a period of time during which a crew member is required by the operator to be available to receive an assignment for an FDP, positioning or other duty notified at least 10 hours in advance;

(21)     “rest period” means a continuous, uninterrupted and defined period of time, following duty or prior to duty, during which a crew member is free of all duties, standby and reserve;

(22)     “rotation” is a duty or a series of duties, including at least one flight duty, and rest periods out of home base, starting at home base and ending when returning to home base for a rest period where the operator is no longer responsible for the accommodation of the crew member;

(23)     “single day free of duty” means, for the purpose of complying with the provisions of Council Directive 2000/79/EC, a time free of all duties and standby consisting of one day and two local nights, which is notified in advance. A rest period may be included as part of the single day free of duty;

(24)     “sector” means the segment of an FDP between an aircraft first moving for the purpose of taking off until it comes to rest after landing on the designated parking position;

(25)     “standby” means a pre-notified and defined period of time during  which a crew member is required by the operator to be available to receive an assignment for a flight, positioning or other duty without an intervening rest period;

(26)     “airport standby” means a standby performed at the airport;

(27)     “other standby” means a standby either at home or in a suitable accommodation;

(28)     “window of circadian low (WOCL)” means the period between 02:00 and 05:59 hours in the time zone to which a crew member is acclimatised.

43 thoughts on “ORO.FTL.105 Definitions

  1. It means that you cannot be awake more then 18 hours. You must count the 18 hours when you are on Standby or Reserve. Since the start of your STB to the end of your FDP, the elapsed time must be down the 18 hours

    Like

    1. Giulia,
      A Crew member (CM) assigned to Reserve (RSV) must be able to have a protected period of at least 8:00 for a sleep period during each calendar day the CM is to be on Reserve, meaning a period where the CM is “expected to be a sleep” and should not be contacted for an assignment. CS FTL.1.230(d). The 8:00 period has no defined time of day when it must be given, however, basic FRM principles should be followed to maximize alertness should notification for an assignment be given to a CM. The 8:00 sleep opportunity should be specified in the Operations Manual.

      If the CM is contacted for an assignment they must be given at least 10:00 notification before report. GM2 CS FTL.1.230(c), this time of notification ‘may’ include the 8:00 period.

      RSV is not considered rest so the time assigned to RSV is NOT to be as time towards the Recurrent Extended Recovery Rest (RERR) as defined in ORO.FTL.235(d) and GM1 CS FTL.1.230(c). The RERR must be no less than 36:00 with two local nights rest.

      Garret

      Like

  2. What means “sector” exactly? Must the aircraft always go airborne or is a “return-to-ramp” with taxi phase only (e.g. due to technical problems) a sector as well. That would be interesting for calculating the max. FDP.

    Regards

    Philipp
    airberlin

    Like

    1. Philipp,
      I believe that a sector is simply the number of times a crew who is working has taken off (gone airborne).
      The time to taxi-out and taxi-in for a gate return is block time, and should be applied towards the cumulative limitations.

      A flight that has taken off, and then diverts (either back to the original airport or to another airport) and then continues to the original destination will have one additional sector for the determination of the basic FDP limits.

      Like

      1. Hi All, sector means time between start up and shut down the engines. Once we had to return to stand 2 times because of technical problem and in Journey Log it was recorded as 2 sectors.

        Matus

        Like

      2. Matus,

        Sector is defined in ORO.FTL.105:
        (24) “sector” means the segment of an FDP between an aircraft

          first moving

        for the purpose of taking off until it comes to rest

          after landing

        on the designated parking position;

        So a flight segment may return to the stand 1 or more times before takeoff and still be considered a single sector. Once the aircraft begins to move until the final arrival all time should be considered as flight time, including the intervening time while the aircraft has been parked at the stand.

        If a single flight has changed flight identification (flight number), a new sector will be recorded.
        When a New Sector has been added to a FDP, an evaluation of the FDP to ensure compliance to remain within the Scheduled FDP limits in ORO.FTL.205.

        A flight that has an enroute diversion after takeoff and then continues to the original destination (with the same flight identification) is considered as a single sector as this is an unforeseen circumstance.

        Examples:
        Flight Number – Origin – Destination – Flight Time
        1 1000 LHR 1005 LHR
        1 1030 LHR 1040 LHR
        1 1200 LHR 1300 AMS 3:00 with 1 scheduled sector

        Flight Number – Origin – Destination – Flight Time
        2 1000 LHR 1005 LHR
        2 1030 LHR 1040 LHR 0:40
        102 1200 LHR 1300 AMS 1:00
        1:40 with 2 scheduled sectors

        Flight Number – Origin – Destination – Flight Time
        3 0900 LHR 1700 JFK/BOS 8:00 – Diversion to BOS
        3 1730 BOS 1830 JFK 1:00
        9:00 with 1 scheduled sectors

        Garret

        Like

  3. Hello, honestly I don’t understand very well the disruptive schedule.
    With a late finish/early start the rest has to include 1 local night. Here I see there are 2 types early type and late type. When it is one and when the other?
    Also it looks wird that if I finish my duty for example taking in consideration the late type at 0200 and my next duty will be at 0459 of the next day I don’t need for the rest a local night but if my late finish is at 0159 and next duty is at 0500 can’t be without a local night between. May be I’m missing something?

    Like

    1. There are indeed two types of definition of late finish and early start.
      The correct definition to be applied (Early type / Late type) is decided by your local CAA, and is applied to all operators whom are certified by that individual country. The definition is fixed and never varies.
      This is defined in ORO.FTL.105 (8) Disruptive Schedules, and further clarified in GM1 ORO.FTL.105 (8) Definitions.

      When a crew member (CM) transitions from a Late Finish to an Early Start or from a Night Duty to an Early Start, the intervening rest period must include a Local Nights Rest (LNR), Ref CS FTL.1.235 (a) (1).

      In the situation you are displaying:
      The CM Release at 02:00 the duty is a Night Duty (02:00 to 04:59) the next report is at 04:59 this is also a night duty.
      The transition rules do not apply as you are going from Night duty to Night Duty.
      Had the next duty started at 05:00 then you would required the LNR, as the CM would be transitioning from a Night Duty to an Early Start. Yes I know it is only 1 minute difference, and the rule is the rule, this seems to be one of the inconsistencies in the EASA FTLs.

      Consecutive Night Duties, however should apply appropriate Fatigue Risk Management Principles, this is referred to in two sections:
      CS FTL.1.205 (a) Night Duties
      and
      GM1 CS FTL.1.205(a)(2) NIGHT DUTIES.

      Like

  4. Hi,
    Can a “single day free of duty” means, for the purpose of complying with the provisions of Council Directive 2000/79/EC, a time free of all duties and standby consisting of one day and two local nights, which is notified in advance. A rest period may be included as part of the single day free of duty” be modified after the rosters have been published? What does it mean “notified in advance”? If you are in stand by and your called for a duty, can this duty be part of this single day and therefore the day off be cancelled ( and the the same time a new day off be notified)? Thank you very much.

    Like

    1. Lapland,

      You asked the following Question:
      Can a “single day free of duty” means, for the purpose of complying with the provisions of Council Directive 2000/79/EC, a time free of all duties and standby consisting of one day and two local nights, which is notified in advance.
      A rest period may be included as part of the single day free of duty” be modified after the rosters have been published?
      What does it mean “notified in advance”?
      If you are in stand by and your called for a duty, can this duty be part of this single day and therefore the day off be cancelled ( and the the same time a new day off be notified)?

      “Rest Periods” (RP), “Recurrent Extended Recovery Rest Periods” (RERRP) , and “Single Day Free of Duty” (SDFD) are periods where a crew member (CM) is free from all duty (or the need to perform duty and are planned in advance (prospectively planned). A CM may be considered on SDFD RERRP and RP all at the same time as long as they individually meet the required criteria of duration and number of local nights.

      A CM assigned to Reserve or Standby at Home, is not considered to be at rest as they may be contacted during those periods for Duty should the need arise.
      The basic premise surrounding “Notified in advance” is to allow a CM to plan periods of sleep inorder to be adequately free from fatigue to perform the duties to perform Flight Duty. This means a airline cannot retroactively declare that a CM has a RERRP or SDFD just because they were not called out for a Duty period.

      However, CM may be re-assigned SDFD, RERRP as long as they meet the criteria concerning frequency (168 hours between RERRP ) and number of SDFD within a calendar month, as long as they will be notified in advance as to when the next RERRP/SDFD will be.

      I caution you, that this is my opinion alone, I am not with the EASA, or any CAA, or Airline or Union, so my opinion may differ.
      Please check with these groups to make sure you have the proper and approved interpretation.
      I am sure your airline should be able to help you further understand.

      Garret

      Like

  5. Hello,
    Regarding the first question above: (Awake time definition)
    “It means that you cannot be awake more then 18 hours. You must count the 18 hours when you are on Standby or Reserve. Since the start of your STB to the end of your FDP, the elapsed time must be down the 18 hours”
    In this case the awake time is till end of FDP and not end of DP? Because there is no post-flight included? is that correct?
    Thanks for your help, Regards Marcel

    Like

    1. Marcel,

      The 18 hours awake rule can be found here:
      CS FTL.1.225 STANDBY
      (b) Standby other than airport standby:
      (1) the maximum duration of standby other than airport standby is 16 hours;
      (2) The operator’s standby procedures are designed to ensure that the combination of standby and FDP do not lead to more than 18 hours awake time;

      It is possible that a crewmember (CM) can be assigned to Standby (SBY) and is actually asleep during a portion of the period.
      For example:
      A CM is assigned SBY starting at 23:00 until 11:00. The during the period from 23:00 to 07:00, the CM is expected to try to get some sleep (that individual may try to begin sleep earlier than 23:00). Let us say the CM is contacted at 05:00 for a 08:00 FDP Start. The ‘Clock’ would begin at 05:00 and the CM would be expected to end the FDP no later than 23:00 ( 05:00 + 18:00 ).

      Our second example:
      A CM is assigned SBY starting at 23:00 until 11:00. The during the period from 23:00 to 07:00, the CM is expected to try to get some sleep (that individual may try to begin sleep earlier than 23:00). Let us say the CM is contacted at 08:00 for a 11:00 FDP Start. The ‘Clock’ would begin at 07:00 and the CM would be expected to end the FDP no later than 01:00 ( 07:00 + 18:00 ).

      Our third example:
      A CM is assigned SBY starting at 10:00 until 22:00. Since the SBY starts outside the 23:00 to 07:00 window, the 18 hour period would begin at the start of the SBY (10:00), regardless of the time of notification or the FDP start time; and the CM would be expected to end the FDP no later than 04:00 ( 10:00 + 18:00 ).

      If I understand the regulation properly, the 18:00 time limit cannot be extended as it is part of the criteria for extensions due to unforeseen circumstances – commanders discretion (AMC1 ORO.FTL.205(f)) and (GM1 CS FTL.1.225(b)(2)).

      Different Airlines may have different procedures, so you should check with your airline as to when the 18:00 period is expected to begin for a specific example.

      /Garret

      Like

  6. Is the time for travelling from a place to rest away from home base to a place where to commence a flight calculated in the fdp? Is there a maximum limit of time for this kind of transfert?

    Like

    1. If the travel time is local in nature (less than or equal 30 minutes) it is included when calculating the rest period under ORO.FTL.235,
      It is not included when determining the break during a split duty period under ORO.FTL.220.

      Like

  7. Not a single answer as to the definition of ‘Awake Time’ but lots of answers as to its maximum duration (based on scientific research of course?). So what does it mean – any ideas?

    Like

  8. Is there a time that you should be off duty prior to a day off.
    For example my company will give me a checkout of 23.59 at my home base preceeding my day off starting at 00.00?

    Like

    1. Simon, you asked the following:
      Is there a time that you should be off duty prior to a day off.
      For example my company will give me a checkout of 23.59 at my home base preceeding my day off starting at 00.00?

      EASA FTL does not regulate “single days free of duty”.
      (23) “single day free of duty” means, for the purpose of complying with the provisions of Council Directive 2000/79/EC, a time free of all duties and standby consisting of one day and two local nights, which is notified in advance. A rest period may be included as part of the single day free of duty;

      “Days off” would be handled via national legislation.

      However, there are rest requirements that must be met.
      Under ORO.FTL.235 (d) Recurrent extended recovery rest periods
      Flight time specification schemes shall specify recurrent extended recovery rest periods to compensate for cumulative fatigue. The minimum recurrent extended recovery rest period shall be 36 hours, including 2 local nights, and in any case the time between the end of one recurrent extended recovery rest period and the start of the next extended recovery rest period shall not be more than 168 hours. The recurrent extended recovery rest period shall be increased to 2 local days twice every month.

      The rest period, as required is measured from release of the previous duty period to the report for the next duty period.
      It must be a single continuous period, of no less than 36:00 and must contain two LNR. Travel time from release to you home is part of a rest period. This is consistent with the following definitions:

      (16) “local night” means a period of 8 hours falling between 22:00 and 08:00 local time;
      (21) “rest period” means a continuous, uninterrupted and defined period of time, following duty or prior to duty, during which a crew member is free of all duties, standby and reserve;

      I believe that your scenario is legal under EASA FTL, however, you should check your company manuals (OM), Union Documentation and National Legislation to seen if there are other requirements. Ask your airline, I am sure they can help you.
      /Garret

      Like

  9. Hello, I have a question regarding FDP: We receive our documents from the operator a few hours before the flight and we are urged to prepare the flight in our hotel (we don’t stay at home base) because the 1 hour preparation time at the airport is not enough (security, walking to aircraft, printing the documents etc…).
    Would this legally be a split duty? How would you define this preparation time before the flight (followed by a transportation of about 30 min to the airport)?
    Also what if we do a briefing in the hotel before the flight because we have no briefing room at the airport? This is duty time or FDP?
    Many thanks for your opinion.
    Georg

    Like

    1. Gerog,
      Based upon the definitions (ORO.FTL.105):
      (10) “duty” means any task that a crew member performs for the operator, including flight duty, administrative work, giving or receiving training and checking, positioning, and some elements of standby;
      (11) “duty period” means a period which starts when a crew member is required by an operator to report for or to commence a duty and ends when that person is free of all duties, including post-flight duty;

      The time when you begin to prepare for the flight is the start of the Duty Period / FDP.
      So in the case presented, in the hotel, you will begin duty once you start preparing paperwork / briefing for the flight (whichever is earlier).
      The duty includes the time when everyone meets in the lobby to board the transportation to the airport, travel to the airport, go through security, arrive at the gate, prepare and inspect the aircraft, board the passengers and depart the gate.
      I would not consider it a split duty.

      If the operator is expecting the crew to begin the day in the hotel, then they need to meet the obligations in ORO.FTL.110(c) specify reporting times that allow sufficient time for ground duties;

      Starting the duty earlier, also reduces the time available for a rest period / sleep opportunity.

      Of course this all goes out of consideration, if individuals volunteer to do the work at the hotel as long as the report for the duty, fit for duty.

      /Garret

      Like

  10. And my second question: How would you define a debriefing time after a flight (during line training environment) and after the 30min transportation to the hotel? Because this transportation time to the hotel is taken already from the min 10h rest time? What if it is followed again by a duty? (Assumed that debriefing time is a duty time?)

    And if I am waiting for a taxi after a flight to position to my hotel, this waiting time is still duty time right?

    And what about the time to prepare for a new airport to fly from? Would this all have to be done in the usual one hour before the flight? Could I ask the operator to show me how he defined this time

    Many thanks,
    Georg

    Like

    1. Georg,
      Waiting for a Taxi is not duty, it should be part of the travel time.

      Debrief, as I am aware of, is the formal conclusion of duty, and the start of a rest period.
      So you block in at the airport, conclude post flight duties, travel to the hotel, attend a post training debrief session, and finally declare an end duty? I would consider that as all duty.

      New Airport, Duty begins when a crew member presents themselves at the designated location to begin duty. It must be of sufficient duration to include all pre-flight activites (ORO.FTL(c)). Yes, the operator should be able to provide this information, based upon Airport, Aircraft Type, and Type of Operation.

      /Garret

      Like

      1. WxMan, thanks for your thoughts.

        I am just wondering, what makes you believe that waiting for local transportation after th elfight to go to the company accommodation/ hotel belongs to travel time (if not more than 2x 30min included in the 10h rest time)?
        Is there any specification of such waiting time I. The FTL?
        (Another thing, waiting as crew at immigration is this duty time as well probably?)

        Now arriving to the hotel, the Line training captain would like to sit down and brief our training flight for 30 minutes, how would that be counted? Can the duty period be interrupted (by the 30 min local transportation?)?

        So my total duty would be in this case minus the local travel time?

        And going back to the airport, briefing together with the cabin crew at the hotel is the start of the FDP. But than this 30min local transport to the airport is included in the 10h rest time right – would you subtract this time from the FDP or once FDP has started its running?

        Second scenario: no briefing at the hotel but we depart 50 min before check in to the airport (regular travel time 30 min) to have 20 min for safety in case of traffic. Would this 20 min be travel time as well if we don’t spend it in the transportation?

        And are you aware any definition of the preflight duties?
        Would you include everything there (in Low Cost operation pilots have to do now a days everything….) such as printing the documents, calling for fuel, checking notams and weather, walking to the aircraft, passport control, security checks, preparing the aircraft, fueling, boarding, briefings, everything?

        I will let you knew what the operator will answer me when I ask him how he calculated the check in time 😉

        We have officially one hour but we check in 1:30 before the flight…..
        And we are for sure not the only company doing this.
        Thanks….

        Like

      2. Georg,
        Now arriving to the hotel, the Line training captain would like to sit down and brief our training flight for 30 minutes, how would that be counted? Can the duty period be interrupted (by the 30 min local transportation?)?

        The entire time from in-time to the end of the line training session is duty, including the travel time to the hotel. Your rest period may never be less than your duty time ( report time at the start of the day through the end of the line training ) as defined in ORO.FTL.235.

        I am just wondering, what makes you believe that waiting for local transportation after th elfight to go to the company accommodation/ hotel belongs to travel time (if not more than 2x 30min included in the 10h rest time)?
        Is there any specification of such waiting time I. The FTL?
        (Another thing, waiting as crew at immigration is this duty time as well probably?)

        Immigration (and customs), yes, I can see that as part of duty. Should be built in as part of the debrief process at the end of a duty period.
        Waiting for the Taxi, this should have been built into the normal travel time. Extra long travel time should not prevent a crew member in a rest period
        from actually getting the minimum of 8:00 sleep opportunity. Lets say the rest period is just 10:00, Subtract the minimum travel time both ways (2*0:30), that leaves 9:00, now subtract the minimum time for physiological needs (1:00), 8:00 which is the minimum sleep opportunity.with an extra 0:05 travel time each way, the minimum rest period would need to be increased by 0:10. You should not have a problem when the rest periods are longer, lets say 12:00, subtract the 1:10 travel, and the 1:00 physiological needs, the remainder is 9:50 which is longer than the minimum 8:00 sleep opportunity.

        And going back to the airport, briefing together with the cabin crew at the hotel is the start of the FDP. But than this 30min local transport to the airport is included in the 10h rest time right – would you subtract this time from the FDP or once FDP has started its running?

        FDP and Duty start at report in the Hotel. Rest period ends at report. Travel time is part of the Duty and FDP. Once Started it will continue until Release from duty, or last working arrival for FDP.

        Second scenario: no briefing at the hotel but we depart 50 min before check in to the airport (regular travel time 30 min) to have 20 min for safety in case of traffic. Would this 20 min be travel time as well if we don’t spend it in the transportation?

        Correct, it is just part of the travel time, it may also be considered rest. Rest ends once the crew begins working at the designated reporting location.

        And are you aware any definition of the preflight duties?
        Would you include everything there (in Low Cost operation pilots have to do now a days everything….) such as printing the documents, calling for fuel, checking notams and weather, walking to the aircraft, passport control, security checks, preparing the aircraft, fueling, boarding, briefings, everything?

        I will let you knew what the operator will answer me when I ask him how he calculated the check in time 😉

        I will admit, I do not know everything that is required to be done, but the operator is responsible under ORO.FTL.110(c) to provide adequate ground duty time.

        We have officially one hour but we check in 1:30 before the flight…..
        And we are for sure not the only company doing this.

        So are you on the clock officially? If you are reducing the rest period below requirements it could be a problem.

        /Garret

        Like

  11. Hi,
    Disruptive schedule; Early type:
    When, other than airport standby, (home standby), starts 0340. Would you consider this a disruptive schedule?
    Will it count as night duty, even if not called?
    Best regard Rolf

    Like

    1. Technically no.

      The definitions in ORO.FTL.105 provides:

      (8) “disruptive schedule” means a crew member’s roster which disrupts the sleep opportunity during the optimal sleep time window by comprising an FDP or a combination of FDPs which encroach, start or finish during any portion of the day or of the night where a crew member is acclimatised. A schedule may be disruptive due to early starts, late finishes or night duties.

      While airport standby is considered FDP, standby (home standby) is not. and the definition above clearly discusses FDP only when making the determination of disruptive schedules.

      Still, the Airline needs to also view the rest periods that exist on the crew members roster with respect to the WOCL to see if the schedule could be considered disruptive as well.

      Like

  12. Hi!

    I have a question about reserv and stadby duty. If I have a standby for example from 8-17. Can they call me out for a flight that has a planned checkout after 17 ?

    Best regards
    Kristjan

    Like

    1. Yes, under certain conditions:

      The limit to remain on Airport Standby (ASB) and Home Standby (SBY) is governed under CS FTL.1.235 (a) and (b) is 16:00.
      So, in your example a SBY that begins at 08:00 must at or before 24:00.

      Should a CM be notified of a DUTY before the scheduled end of the planned SBY, the SBY may be extended, and will end once the CM reports for DUTY. The SBY must end within 16:00 from its start. Should the CM be assigned to a FDP after serving more than 6:00 on SBY the scheduled FDP must not exceed the scheduled limit, less the amount of SBY beyond 6:00.

      Should a CM complete a SBY without being notified of a DUTY before the end of the SBY, that CM is now on a rest period and is not to be contacted during the rest period.

      You should have a discussion with your airline officials as they may have a different opinion.
      /Garret

      Like

  13. Hello, what is mean “8 hours falling between 22:00 and 08:00 local time”? Is it mean 8 hours slepping time? After night duty is it OK to next duty that start at 06:00 local? Because when duty starts 6 am you have to wake up early?

    Like

    1. If you have just completed a duty that touches/overlaps any portion of the time from 02:00 to 04:59 (night duty) ORO.FTL.105 (9), that duty must be followed by a rest period of no less than 10:00. If the next duty period begins between 05:00 to 06:59 (05:59 for early type) ORO.FTL.105 (8); the rest period after the night duty must also include a Local Nights Rest (LNR). A LNR must include any 8:00 between 22:00 and 08:00, the 8:00 is rest, not necessarily Sleep ORO.FTL.105 (16). A Rest Period ends when a crew member reports for duty; not when the crew member wakes up, ORO.FTL.105 (21).

      So if I understand your example correctly:
      1) Duty #1 ends at 02:01 day 1. The next FDP must not begin any earlier than 12:01 day 1 (2:01 + 10:00) as per ORO.FTL.235(b).
      2) Duty #2 starts at 06:15, it must be on day 2 to comply with 1). Duty #2 is an early start, in order to transition from a late finish/night duty the intervening rest period must include 1 LNR as per CS FTL.1.235(a)(1). The earliest the next LNR may commence is 22:00 day 1 and it may not end any earlier than 06:00 day 2.

      So the minimum rest period is from 02:01 day 1 to 06:00 day 2, a duration 29:59. In the case provided, the intervening rest period is 30:14.

      I hope this helps you understand.
      /Garret

      Like

  14. Is there a definition for “Airport duty”?
    Our company has
    a)”airport stanby” and
    b)“airport duty”.
    The later is not defined and therefore crews are exploited for various manual labour tasks.

    Like

    1. “Airport Duty” would fall under the general definitions in ORO.FTL.105.

      (10) “duty” means any task that a crew member performs for the operator, including flight duty,
      administrative work, giving or receiving training and checking, positioning, and some elements of standby;

      The tasks, may be any work required by the company, “Ticketing”, “Loading Baggage or Catering Supplies” etc.
      If the “Duty” occurs before a Flight without an intervening rest period, it must be included as part of a “Flight Duty Period”.

      /Garret

      Like

  15. According to Easa faq there are no minimum rest requirements before other duty. If after FDP next duty is positioning, is there any requirements for rest in between? Is it possible to have FDP 12hrs, have a break of 2 hours and then position back home base 3 hours? Is it possible to say that this consists of 2 duty periods and therefore only 12 hour rest is required at home base? Is there anything limiting the time between 2 duty periods?

    Like

    1. So you asked the following:
      According to Easa faq there are no minimum rest requirements before other duty.
      1) If after FDP next duty is positioning, is there any requirements for rest in between?
      2) Is it possible to have FDP 12hrs, have a break of 2 hours and then position back home base 3 hours?
      3) Is it possible to say that this consists of 2 duty periods and therefore only 12 hour rest is required at home base?
      4) Is there anything limiting the time between 2 duty periods?

      Rest periods are covered under:
      ORO.FTL.235 / CS FTL.1.235 / GM1 ORO.FTL.235(a)(2) / AMC1 ORO.FTL.235(b) / GM1 CS FTL.1.235(b)(3) and GM2 CS FTL.1.235(b)(3).

      Unless a Crew Member (CM) has been releasd into a rest period of at least 10:00, the CM is STILL on Duty.

      To address your examples:
      2) Is it possible to have FDP 12hrs, have a break of 2 hours and then position back home base 3 hours?
      The total continuous time on duty is 17:00 = 12:00 + 2:00 + 3:00. The minimum rest required after such a duty is 17:00. This rest must be given before the start of the next FDP, ASB, SBY or Reserve. ORO.FTL.235 (a) & (b) refers.

      3) Is it possible to say that this consists of 2 duty periods and therefore only 12 hour rest is required at home base?
      NO, ORO.FTL.235 is a regulatory requirement, unless the Intervening time between the FDP and Positioning has met the requirements for a rest period, the CM is still on duty.

      4) Is there anything limiting the time between 2 duty periods?
      Yes, ORO.FTL.235 (a),(b) & (c) stipulates the absolute minimum rest period is 10:00 between duty periods.

      So to your original question:
      1) If after FDP next duty is positioning, is there any requirements for rest in between?
      Unless the CM has been provided a rest period, they are still on duty. Upon completion of such duty they must be provided the required rest period under ORO.FTL.235 before undertaking the next FDP, ASB, SBY or RSV.

      /Garret

      Like

      1. Let me direct you to the following definitions in ORO.FTL.105
        (6) “break” means a period of time within a flight duty period, shorter than a rest period, counting as duty and during which a crew member is free of all tasks;

        (10) “duty” means any task that a crew member performs for the operator, including flight duty, administrative work, giving or receiving training and checking, positioning, and some elements of standby;

        (11) “duty period” means a period which starts when a crew member is required by an operator to report for or to commence a duty and ends when that person is free of all duties, including post-flight duty

        (21) “rest period” means a continuous, uninterrupted and defined period of time, following duty or prior to duty, during which a crew member is free of all duties, standby and reserve;

        FAQ 39 addresses when ORO.FTL.235 needs to be evaluated, not what meets the definition of a rest period.

        FAQ 39 Provides the Example FDP1-Off Duty 1-DP1-Off Duty 2-DP2-Rest Period-FDP2.
        Unless Off Duty 1 or Off Duty 2 meets the statutory minimum requirement of a rest period (10:00) the crew member is still on duty, thus the required rest period before the next FDP, ASB, SBY or RSV must consider the length of the total duty time when establishing the criteria to meet the rest requirements in ORO.FTL.235.

        Further, FAQ 39 includes:
        Nevertheless, the operator needs to be able to demonstrate they have considered the fatiguing nature and cumulative effects of these duty periods under their operator responsibilities as they can generate fatigue that could affect crew member’s ability to rest prior to his/her next FDP.

        This statement addresses provisions in ORO.FTL.110 (b),(d),(e) & (g):
        (b) ensure that flight duty periods are planned in a way that enables crew members to remain sufficiently free from fatigue so that they can operate to a satisfactory level of safety under all circumstances;

        (d) take into account the relationship between the frequency and pattern of flight duty periods and rest periods and give consideration to the cumulative effects of undertaking long duty hours combined with minimum rest periods;

        (e) allocate duty patterns which avoid practices that cause a serious disruption of an established sleep/work pattern, such as alternating day/night duties;

        (g) provide rest periods of sufficient time to enable crew members to overcome the effects of the previous duties and to be rested by the start of the following flight duty period;

        I understand, I may have a very conservative viewpoint with respect to this issue, but I would rather err on the side of safety.
        Please discuss with your airline’s management and or your local regulator for further clarification.

        /Garret

        Like

  16. An example:
    You have a monthly roster containing only sectors and no standby.

    Then every period between the sectors (FDPs) will be rest periods. (Rest periods; free from all duties).

    Can you than be rescheduled into the rest periods? If you must be available for rescheduling, then you are not free from all duties. You can work regarding duty/rest calculations, but do you have to?

    Shouldn’t rescheduling entering rest periods be based on volunteerism?

    If you must be available outside FDPs for rescheduling, will these hours count in total yearly duty hours, regarding max 2000 work hours?
    (https://osha.europa.eu/en/legislation/directives/council-directive-2000-79-ec )

    Like

    1. With respect to a re-schedule during a rest period:
      Some common sense must be used, contacting a crew member (CM) when it would be expected that they would be asleep seems somewhat out of bounds, while attempting to contact a CM when it would be expected that they are awake seems reasonable. In either case, the CM is “volunteering” to accept contact.
      Accepting contact is just the first step, the re-scheduling should permit the to plan sleep so that they will be adequately rested to perform the revised duty schedule, if the CM feels that will not be possible they should not accept the revised schedule. The OM should contain procedures for re-scheduling CM as part of the operators responsibilities and as part of the CM responsibilities.

      With respect to 2000:00 yearly work limit, EASA ORO.FTL dose not specifically limit this provision, however, local labor laws do address this.
      If you are being contacted to be notified of a rescheduling, it is reasonable that it may be applied towards the yearly limit, again airline policies and any collective labor agreements should address this, again check with the airline.

      Lastly, any re-scheduling of a CM must meet ALL applicable provisions of ORO.FTL, Rest, Duty, FDP and Flight Time limits.

      /Garret

      Like

  17. Another example.

    Your roster is published, and you see that 3 weeks ahead your checkout at home base one Thursday, is 1300 local time.
    You are than planning a dental visit or dinner with you wife or something that is important for you later that Thursday afternoon. You are between FDPs and, by definition, you are in a rest period.

    One week later, the schedule department is changing your roster to check out 1800 local on that mentioned Thursday. Of cause, the change is within FTL limits.

    Question 1.

    Can the schedule department do that without your approval? If they can, you have a “duty” to be available in that afternoon.
    How can you than have a rest period? And how will that time show in a duty calculation?

    Question 2.

    If the change in roster must be accepted by the CM, can a collective labour agreement override the need for acceptance?

    Like

    1. Rolf,

      In short, YES, the Operator may change the check-out (Release) time, without notification.
      Sometimes, they could be forced to make changes due to external conditions.
      Suppose, the CM was scheduled a 5:00 FDP followed by a 1:00 DHD to end at 13:00. The DHD was on Thomas Cook, well the flights were Canceled and now the CM must DHD on another flight (DHD for the 18:00).

      So, Duty and Rest Calculations remain the same.
      Must be based upon the latest times available (Report to Release for Duty)
      and (Required Rest may never be less than 10:00 / length of preceding Duty Time.

      The regulations do have requirements for changes to the Start of a FDP(ORO.FTL.205(g) and CS FTL.1.205(d)).

      Labour agreements most likely cover only some of the conditions, not all.

      A good practice by the CM for planning OFF-DUTY activities would be to anticipate that the duty will end LATE in accordance to the permitted limits as defined in ORO.FTL.205(f) (3:00) above the Scheduled FDP Limits.

      Sorry, if this is not the answer you wanted to hear.
      /Garret

      Like

      1. Hi again.

        I hoped the answer had been different, yes, but I’m trying to figure out how well we are protected by the FTL when it comes time off. Can our free time be disposed of freely by the company if it within duty/rest regulation?

        What is “our” time; Days off, vacation, free time in our roster?

        If the company is free to reschedule a CM, CM has no time off as a safe nonworking time.

        Since the time off probably is not protected by FTL, the time off must be protected in a collective labour agreement.

        /Rolf

        Like

      2. As I stated in my response on 3-Oct-19, “Reasonable Contact” is permitted.

        Lets say a CM is given a 72:00 period free of duty at home, obviously, the CM is not asleep the entire 72:00.
        Contacting the CM when it is “Reasonable” to expect that they are awake to advise them of a change in the Roster, ie 72:00 is reduced to 48:00, would seem ok. As long as all limitations in accordance with ORO.FTL have been complied with. Further, the changes must also be in compliance with Directive 2000/79/EC – working time – civil aviation as well as any Local/National Labour Laws.

        Procedures, to revise a CM roster should be contained in OM and possibly in the Collective Labour Agreements.

        In the United States, contacting a CM during Rest Period is permitted under the “One Phone Call Rule”, more than that it is assumed that it is disruptive, however, there is no requirement that during a Rest Period, that a CM is required to respond, it is all voluntary.

        /Garret

        Like

Leave a Comment

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.