Application of Regulations

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Concept Model Acclimatisation with Practical Examples

Standard Crew Complement:

ORO.FTL.205(b) – Scheduled FDP Limits:

Maximum daily FDP for an Acclimatised crew member shall use the following table:

Maximum daily FDP – Acclimatised crew members

Start of FDP at reference time

Sectors

1 – 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

06:00 – 13:29

13:00

12:30

12:00

11:30

11:00

10:30

10:00

9:30

9:00

13:30 – 13:59

12:45

12:15

11:45

11:15

10:45

10:15

9:45

9:15

9:00

14:00 – 14:29

12:30

12:00

11:30

11:00

10:30

10:00

9:30

9:00

9:00

14:30 – 14:59

12:15

11:45

11:15

10:45

10:15

9:45

9:15

9:00

9:00

15:00 – 15:29

12:00

11:30

11:00

10:30

10:00

9:30

9:00

9:00

9:00

15:30 – 15:59

11:45

11:15

10:45

10:15

9:45

9:15

9:00

9:00

9:00

16:00 – 16:29

11:30

11:00

10:30

10:00

9:30

9:00

9:00

9:00

9:00

16:30 – 16:59

11:15

10:45

10:15

9:45

9:15

9:00

9:00

9:00

9:00

17:00 – 04:59

11:00

10:30

10:00

9:30

9:00

9:00

9:00

9:00

9:00

05:00 – 05:14

12:00

11:30

11:00

10:30

10:00

9:30

9:00

9:00

9:00

05:15 – 05:29

12:15

11:45

11:15

10:45

10:15

9:45

9:15

9:00

9:00

05:30 – 05:44

12:30

12:00

11:30

11:00

10:30

10:00

9:30

9:00

9:00

05:45 – 05:59

12:45

12:15

11:45

11:15

10:45

10:15

9:45

9:15

9:00

  • Use the start time of the FDP (Adjusted to Reference Time Zone) and apply the number of sectors within the FDP.
  • Should be done for each sector (Leg).

Example:

Report

800

 

ELAPSED

MAX

MAX EXT

FLT

DEP

 

ARR

 

BLOCK

FDP

DUTY

SK FDP

SK FDP

CMD EXT

1

BRU

900

NCE

1045

145

245

245

1300

1400

1500

2

NCE

1115

BRU

1300

145

500

500

1300

1400

1500

3

BRU

1330

FRA

1430

100

630

630

1230

1330

1430

4

FRA

1500

BRU

1600

100

800

800

1200

1300

1400

Acclimated

 Standard Crew 

Total

530

800

 

Release

 1630

2030

2130

2230

Duty Time

830

1230

1330

1430

Maximum Scheduled FDP in RED.

Maximum daily FDP for a crew member in an Unknown State of Acclimatisation shall use the following table:

Maximum Daily FDP according to number of Sectors

1 – 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11:00

10:30

10:00

9:30

9:00

9:00

9:00

Not Allowed

  • Apply the number of sectors within the FDP.
  • The maximum number of sectors is 8.
  • Should be done for each sector (Leg)

Example:

Report

800

 

ELAPSED

MAX

MAX EXT

FLT

DEP

 

ARR

 

BLOCK

FDP

DUTY

SK FDP

SK FDP

CMD EXT

1

BRU

900

NCE

1045

145

245

245

1100

1200

1300

2

NCE

1115

BRU

1300

145

500

500

1100

1200

1300

3

BRU

1330

FRA

1430

100

630

630

1030

1130

1230

4

FRA

1500

BRU

1600

100

800

800

1000

1100

1200

Unknown State

 Standard Crew 

Total

530

800

 

Release

 1630

1830

1930

2030

Duty Time

830

1030

1130

1230

Maximum Scheduled FDP in RED.

Maximum daily FDP for a crew member in an Unknown State of Acclimatisation under FRM may use the following table:

Maximum Daily FDP according to number of Sectors

1 – 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

12:00

11:30

11:00

10:30

10:00

9:30

9:00

Not Allowed

  • Apply the number of sectors within the FDP.
  • The maximum number of sectors is 8.
  • Should be done for each sector (Leg)

Authors Note: It is important to calculate the scheduled FDP limitation with each leg, as this determines when a leg is operating under extended FDP limits.

 

ORO.FTL.205(c) – FDP Limitations for Cabin Crew Members (CCM):

When CCM require more time for pre-flight duties than Flight Crew Members (FCM) the following constraints are applied:

  • The Applied Difference is calculated as FCM Report Time – CCM Report Time.
  • The Applied Difference shall not exceed 1 hour (1:00).
  • The CCM FDP starts at CCM Report  Time.
  • The reference time used with FDP Table above is the CCM Report Time plus the Applied Difference in Report  Time.

ORO.FTL.220 – Split Duty

The FDP must contain a break on the ground of no less than 3 hours (3:00).

Is only applied as an extension to the Scheduled FDP Limits in ORO.FTL.205(b).

The permitted extension when only provided an accommodation is the lesser of:

  • 50 % of the break which does not encroach the WOCL or.
  • 3 hours (3:00).

The permitted extension when provided a suitable accommodation is the:

  • 50 % of the break given

The break must be in a suitable accommodation when:

  • The break is 6 hours (6:00) or more, or
  • The break encroaches the WOCL, or
  • The crew member is in an unknown state of acclimatisation.

A Split Duty Extension does not count as an extension above the Scheduled FDP Limits in ORO.FTL.205(b), when evaluating FDP Extensions in 7 Calendar Days in ORO.FTL.205.(d)

Example:

Report

800

 

ELAPSED

MAX SK FDP

SPLIT FDP

MAX EXT CMD
EXT

FLT

DEP

 

ARR

 

BLOCK

FDP

DUTY

1

BRU

900

NCE

1045

145

245

245

1300

1300

1500

2

NCE

1115

BRU

1300

145

500

500

1300

1300

1500

BREAK

BRU

1330

BRU

1630

 

830

830

Break is 3:00 /
Ext is 1:30

3

BRU

1730

FRA

1830

100

1030

1030

1230

1400

1600

4

FRA

1900

BRU

2000

100

1200

1200

1200

1330

1530

Split Duty
Standard Crew

Total

530

1200

 

Release

2030

2030

2200

2400

Duty Time

1230

1230

1400

1600

Required Rest After DP

1230

1230

1400

1600

Split  FDP values in RED.

 

ORO.FTL.205(d) – Scheduled FDP Extensions:

The use of the extension shall be planned in advance to adhere to the constraints in the following Table:

WOCL Encroachment

Maximum Planned Sectors

0:00

5

0:01 to 2:00

4

More than 2:00

3

The maximum planned extension is 1 hour (1:00).

The table in CS FTL.205(b) Extension of FDP without in-flight rest provides proper guidance for acclimated crew members:

Starting time of FDP

Sectors

1 – 2

3

4

5

06:15 – 06:29

13:15

12:45

12:15

11:45

06:30 – 06:44

13:30

13:00

12:30

12:00

06:45 – 06:59

13:45

13:15

12:45

12:15

07:00 – 13:29

14:00

13:30

13:00

12:30

13:30 – 13:59

13:45

13:15

12:45

14:00 – 14:29

13:30

13:00

12:30

14:30 – 14:59

13:15

12:45

12:15

15:00 – 15:29

13:00

12:30

12:00

15:30 – 15:59

12:45

Not allowed

16:00 – 16:29

12:30

16:30 – 16:59

12:15

17:00 – 17:29

12:00

17:30 – 17:59

11:45

18:00 – 18:29

11:30

18:30 – 18:59

11:15

19:00 – 06:14

May not be used if the FDP is a Split Duty ORO.FTL.220.

A Planned Extension is permitted when it  is the 1st or 2nd extension of a FDP in any 7 calendar day period.

EASA EXT FDP in 7 days

When a 2nd Planned extension in 7 calendar days additional rest must be given:

  • the minimum pre-flight and post-flight rest periods shall be increased by 2 hours; or
  • the post-flight rest period shall be increased by 4 hours.

In the case where 2 FDP extensions are planned for consecutive FDPs the additional rest must be applied to both FDPs.

Example:

 

Required Rest Before DP

1200

1200

1400

1200

Report

800

 

ELAPSED

MAX

MAX EXT

FLT

DEP

 

ARR

 

BLOCK

FDP

DUTY

SK FDP

SK FDP

CMD EXT

1

BRU

900

NCE

1045

145

245

245

1300

1400

1500

2

NCE

1115

BRU

1300

145

500

500

1300

1400

1500

3

BRU

1330

FRA

1430

100

630

630

1230

1330

1430

4

FRA

1500

BRU

1600

100

800

800

1200

1300

1400

Acclimated
Standard Crew

Total

530

800

 

Release

1630

2030

2130

2230

Duty Time

930

1230

1330

1430

Required Rest After DP

1200

1230

1530

1430

Maximum Planned FDP Extensions in RED.

CS FTL.1.205 – Flight Duty Period (FDP):

  1. Consecutive night duties, the number of sectors is limited to 4 sectors per duty.
  2. FRM is required to actively manage the fatiguing effect of night duties of more than 10 hours in relation to the surrounding duties and rest periods

To aid in understanding the requirement to apply FRM to Long Night Duties, the following Table has been developed for Acclimated / Un-Augmented CM’s.

FDP Start

Sectors

1 – 2

3

4

5

6

13:00 – 13:29

13:00

No FRM Required,

FDP is not a Long Night FDP

13:30 – 13:44

12:45

13:45 – 13:59

12:45

12:15

14:00 – 14:29

12:30

12:00

14:30 – 14:44

12:15

11:45

14:45 – 14:59

12:15

11:45

11:15

15:00 – 15:29

12:00

11:30

11:00

15:30 – 15:44

11:45

11:15

10:45

15:45 – 15:59

11:45

11:15

10:45

10:15

16:00 – 16:29

11:30

11:00

10:30

16:30 – 16:59

11:15

10:45

10:15

17:00 – 04:59

11:00

10:30

Augmented Crew Complements:

ORO.FTL.205(e) – Maximum daily FDP with the use of in-flight rest:

Flight Crew Member:

The Scheduled FDP Limits for Augmented Flight Crews:

  • the FDP is limited to 3 sectors
  • The minimum rest at destination is at least as long as the preceding duty period, or 14 hours, whichever is greater
  • the minimum in-flight rest period is:
  • a consecutive 90-minute period for each crew member
  • 2 consecutive hours for the flight crew members at control during landing.
    • The maximum daily FDP under the provisions of ORO.FTL.205 (e) may be extended due to in-flight rest for flight crew in accordance to the following table:

    In Flight
    Rest Facility

    Max 2 Sectors
    and 1 sector more than 9 hours

    3 Sectors or
    all sectors less than or equal to 9 hours

    3 FCM

    4 FCM

    3 FCM

    4 FCM

    Class 1

    17:00

    18:00

    16:00

    17:00

    Class 2

    16:00

    17:00

    15:00

    16:00

    Class 3

    15:00

    16:00

    14:00

    15:00

Cabin Crew Member:

Augmented Cabin Crew Members are permitted to be extended under the following conditions:

  • the FDP is limited to 3 sectors
  • The minimum rest at destination is at least as long as the preceding duty period, or 14 hours, whichever is greater
  • The extension up to the Maximum extended FDP, provided each CCM is provided an inflight that meets the values in the following Table:.

Maximum extended FDP (hours)

Minimum in-flight rest (hours)

Class 1

Class 2

Class 3

Up to 14:30

1:30

1:30

1:30

14:31 – 15:00

1:45

2:00

2:20

15:01 – 15:30

2:00

2:20

2:40

15:31 – 16:00

2:15

2:40

3:00

16:01 – 16:30

2:35

3:00

Not allowed

16:31 – 17:00

3:00

3:25

17:01 – 17:30

3:25

17:31 – 18:00

3:50

All Crew Complements:

Extensions under ORO.FTL.220 Split Duty, ORO.FTL.205(e) – Inflight Rest, ORO.FTL.205(d) – Scheduled FDP Extension, are not permitted to be used together.

ORO.FTL.205(f) – Extensions for Unforeseen Circumstances:

Before Take-off:

  • The maximum planned extension for standard flight crew and standard cabin crew is 2 hour s (2:00) above the scheduled FDP limits in ORO.FLT.205(b).
  • The maximum planned extension for augmented flight crew and augmented cabin crew is 3 hour s (3:00) above the scheduled FDP limits in ORO.FLT.205(e).

After Take-off:

  • May continue as long as necessary to land at the next Destination / Alternate Aerodrome.

Example:

 

Required Rest Before DP

1200

1200

1400

1200

Report

800

 

ELAPSED

MAX

MAX EXT

FLT

DEP

 

ARR

 

BLOCK

FDP

DUTY

SK FDP

SK FDP

CMD EXT

1

BRU

900

NCE

1045

145

245

245

1300

1400

1500

2

NCE

1115

BRU

1300

145

500

500

1300

1400

1500

3

BRU

1330

FRA

1430

100

630

630

1230

1330

1430

4

FRA

1500

BRU

1600

100

800

800

1200

1300

1400

Acclimated
Standard Crew

Total

530

800

 

Release

1630

2030

2130

2230

Duty Time

930

1230

1330

1430

Required Rest After DP

1200

1230

1530

1430

Maximum Planned FDP Extensions in RED.

ORO.FTL.210 – Flight Times and Duty Periods

Cumulative Flight Time :

  • 100 hours of flight time in any 28 consecutive days;
  • 900 hours of flight time in any calendar year; and
  • 1000 hours of flight time in any 12 consecutive calendar months.

Cumulative Duty Time:

  • 60 duty hours in any 7 consecutive days;
  • 110 duty hours in any 14 consecutive days; and
  • 190 duty hours in any 28 consecutive days, spread as evenly as practicable throughout that period.

ORO.FTL.235 – Rest Requirements:

Basic Requirements

Rest At Base

Condition

Required Rest

Reduced Rest

Compensatory
Rest

Max FDP
Following Reduced Rest

No Suitable Accommodation
is Provided

Maximum of:

12:00 (Under
FRM)

Increased by
the difference between Required Rest and Reduced Rest Given

Reduced by
the difference between Required Rest and Reduced Rest Given

Previous Duty
Time

or 12:00

Suitable Accommodation
is Provided

Maximum of:

10:00 (Under
FRM)

Increased by
the difference between Required Rest and Reduced Rest Given

Reduced by
the difference between Required Rest and Reduced Rest Given

Previous Duty
Time

or 10:00

Transition
from

Includes 1
Local Nights Rest (LNR)

Not Applicable – May not be Reduced

Late Finish
or

Night Duty

to Early
Start

 

Rest Away
From Base

Required Rest

Reduced Rest

Compensatory
Rest

Max FDP
Following Reduced Rest

Maximum of:

10:00 (Under
FRM)

Increased by
the difference between Required Rest and Reduced Rest Given

Reduced by
the difference between Required Rest and Reduced Rest Given

Previous Duty
Time

or 10:00

 

Example #1: Rest Away From Base

EASA Rest Example #1

As we can see in the example above, The planned Duty Periods and FDPs and the Rest Requirements are legal.

Reduced Rest:

Example #2: Reduced Rest Away From Base.

EASA Rest Example #2

Example #2, illustrates what can happen to Example #1 if the 1st Duty Period experiences a Delay of just 1 hour.

FDP #2 will require a reduction down to 10:00 and Rest Period #2 will require an increase to 13:00. Should Duty Period #2 be re-scheduled to have a duty time of only 11:30 and an FDP of 10:00 the Comp Rest after Duty #2 becomes 12:30 and the Actual Rest also increases to 12:30.

There are other constraints that also must be observed to permit reduced rest:

  • Reduced Rest is only permitted under an approved FRM.
  • There is a maximum of 2 Reduced Rests between Extended Recurrent Recovery Rests

Other Rest Requirements at Base

o   Extended Recurrent Recovery Rest (ERRR):
  • An ERRR is at least 36 hours (36:00) and includes 2 LNR.
    • The maximum separation between two ERRRs is 168:00, this is the maximum span of time from
      the end of one ERRR to the start of the ERRR.
    • Each Crew member must be given twice a month, ERRR that includes two (2) local days.
  • Time Zone Differences (Suitable accommodation provided):
    • If a FDP involves a 4 hour time difference or more the minimum rest following that FDP is at
      least as long as the preceding duty period, or 14 hours, whichever is greater.
    • May only happen once between two ERRRs
  • Time Zone Differences (Suitable accommodation not provided):
    • May only happen once between two ERRRs
  • At home base, if a rotation involves a 4 hour time difference or more, the minimum rest is as
    specified in the following table:

Minimum Number of Local Nights Rest

Maximum time difference (h) between reference
time and local time where a crew member rests during a rotation

Time elapsed (h) since reporting for the first
FDP in a rotation involving at least 4-hour time difference to the reference time

< 48

48 – 71:59

72 – 95:59

≥ 96

≤ 6

2

2

3

3

> 6 and ≤ 9

2

3

3

4

> 9 and ≤ 12

2

3

4

5

This rule is applied only if the operator is not furnishing a suitable accommodation at base.

Example: CM has flown to a time zone 7 hours away from home base and has been away from home base 65:00, upon return the CM will require a rest period that includes 3 LNR.

  •  Separation between West to East or East to West pairings:
    • Each pairing will transition outside of a zone +/- 2 hours from home base
    • One pairing will more than +2 hours from home base while the other pairing will be more than -2 hours from home base.
    • The separation between these two pairings will include 3 LNR’s
  • Note: the original definition contained in the CRD 2012 has been removed,in the final version of the regulations, it is given here for reference:
    • Eastward-Westward and Westward-Eastward transition’ means the transition at home base between a rotation crossing 6 or more time zones in one direction and a rotation crossing 4 or more time zones in the opposite direction.

Other Rest Requirements away from Base

o   Time Zone Differences:
  • May only happen once between two ERRRs
  • If a FDP involves a 4 hour time difference or more the minimum rest following that FDP is at least as long as the preceding duty period, or 14 hours, whichever is greater.

ORO.FTL.205(g)  — Unforeseen circumstances  — delayed reporting

Takes into account the amount of the delay and the number of notifications.

With a Single Notification or a Delay >= 10 hours, the Actual FDP Start Time is at the Revised FDP Start Time.

Delay Report Time

With a 2nd Notification with less than 10 hours further delay, the FDP start time is the earlier of:

  • the Original Revised FDP Start
  • Time of Notification + 1 Hour

Delay Report Time 2nd Notification

ORO.FTL.225 —  Standby and Duties at the Airport

Airport Standby (ASB)

EASA ASB depiction

1)      The maximum time on ASB or Combined ASB & FDP is 16:00, when not assigned to a Split Duty or an FDP extended with Inflight Rest.

2)      The maximum time on FDP is reduced by the amount of time on ASB in excess of 4:00.

3)      A CM assigned to an ASB that does not lead to a FDP must  be released into a rest period in accordance to the rest requirements under ORO.FTL.235.

4)      All time on ASB/Combined ASB & FDP counts towards the Cumulative Duty Limitations under ORO.FTL.210.

Other Standby (OSB) than airport standby:

EASA SBY depiction

1)      The maximum duration of OSB is 16 hours.

2)      The operator’s standby procedures are designed to ensure that the combination of OSB and FDP do not lead to more than 18 hours awake time.

3)      25% of time spent on OSB counts as duty time for the purpose of ORO.FTL.210 only if the OSB leads towards a FDP without an intervening rest period.

4)      OSB is followed by a rest period in accordance with ORO.FTL.235.

5)      OSB ceases when the crew member reports at the designated reporting point.

6)      If the OSB ceases within the first 6 hours, the maximum FDP counts from reporting.

7)      If the OSB ceases after the first 6 hours, the maximum FDP is reduced by the amount of SBY time exceeding 6 hours.

8)      If the FDP is extended due to in-flight rest according to ORO.FTL.205(e), or to split duty according to ORO.FTL.220, the 6 hours of paragraph (6) and (7) are extended to 8 hours;

9)      If the OSB starts between 23:00 and 07:00, the time between 23:00 and 07:00 does not count towards the reduction of the FDP under (6), (7) and (8) until the crew member is contacted by the operator.

ORO.FTL.230 — Reserve (RSV)

EASA RSV depiction

The minimum time from the time a CM is notified until the CM is required to report for a FDP, ASB or start an OSB is 10:00.

A CM assigned to RSV must meet the rest requirements for Extended Recurrent Recovery Rest (ERRR) under ORO.FTL.235(d).

4 thoughts on “Application of Regulations

    1. Simple.
      Your Duty period begins when you Report at the designated location (ASB start) and ends when you are next Released into a Rest Period.
      The Rest Period must meet all the conditions as equired in ORO.FTL.235, so the absolute miimum rest period is 10:00 or the length of the previous duty period.

      /Garret

      Like

  1. Hi there
    I have a question. Hope you can help me here.
    My question is, what is an extended recurrent rest period?
    I know what it consists of, but i want to know what exactly is an extended recurrent rest period. Is it any rest period exceeding the minimum required by easa? Thanks in advance.

    Like

    1. Pedro,
      An Extended Recurrent Rest Period (ERRP) can be viewed as a ‘weekend off’.
      While an ERRP is not required to actually cover any part of a weekend, or to be given while the crew member (CM) is at home; it provides the following:
      1) a chance for a CM to recover from cumulative fatigue since the last ERRP
      2) permits some measure to re-synchonize to the local time zone.

      They requirements for ERRP are contained in ORO.FTL.235(d), a 36:00 period with 2 local nights rest free of duty. ERRP may be separated by a span of no more than 168:00 from the end of one ERRP and the start of the next ERRP.
      An ERRP must have be prospective in nature (planned in advance), and must be continuous.
      A CM assigned to a Standby at home or Reserve who is not contacted by the operator is NOT considered to have been on an ERRP.

      An ERRP is similar to a Single Day Free-of-Duty (SDFD). Technically a SDFD’s are not governed by EASA ORO.FTL, but are required under other local labour laws as required under EU Council Directive 2000/79/EC.

      Lastly, an ERRP may be provided concurrently (at the same time as) with any other required rest period.

      /Garret

      Like

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