(a) Scheduling has an important impact on a crew member’s ability to sleep and to maintain a proper level of alertness. When developing a workable roster, the operator should strike a fair balance between the commercial needs and the capacity of individual crew members to work effectively. Rosters should be developed in such a way that they distribute the amount of work evenly among those that are involved.
(b) Schedules should allow for flights to be completed within the maximum permitted flight duty period and flight rosters should take into account the time needed for pre- flight duties, taxiing, the flight- and turnaround times. Other factors to be considered when planning duty periods should include:
(1) the allocation of work patterns which avoid undesirable practices such as alternating day/night duties, alternating eastward-westward or westward- eastward time zone transitions, positioning of crew members so that a serious disruption of established sleep/work patterns occurs;
(2) scheduling sufficient rest periods especially after long flights crossing many time zones; and
(3) preparation of duty rosters sufficiently in advance with planning of recurrent extended recovery rest periods and notification of the crew members well in advance to plan adequate pre-duty rest.